20 Sep

Cannabis Explained

Cannabis sativa L. is the scientific name given to the cannabis or hemp plant in 1753 by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. Since then, three main types have been identified:

Cannabis Sativa (Linnaéus 1753) or C. sativa L.
Cannabis Indica (Lamarck 1785) or C. indica Lam.
Cannabis Ruderalis (Janischevsky 1924) or C. ruderalis J.

Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis each have distinctive characteristics.


Probably the most common form of Cannabis worldwide and also the type with the most applications. As a botanical name, sativa simply means ‘sown’ and is applied to the cultivated or common form of many agricultural crops.

A typical Sativa is a tall plant, generally a lighter shade of green than the other types. Its leaves are made up of long, narrow blades. Female flowers are longer and more ‘feathery’ in appearance than those of an Indica.

In general, the foliage of a Sativa is sparser than that of the other varieties Sativas grow taller than the other types, gaining height all through their growing and flowering phases. This is due to the equatorial origin of Sativas. In the tropical regions the length of day does not change very much between seasons, so Sativas are adapted to accomplish both their growing and flowering in a fairly uniform photoperiod.

The female flowers of Sativa strains usually grow along the length of the stem and branches, instead of forming in clusters around the internodes, as with the other types. This flower formation is due to the Sativa tendency to grow and flower simultaneously. As a result, female Sativa flowers are usually less dense and weigh less than Indica flowers.

A pure Sativa often requires a combined grow/flower period of around six months to ripen completely. For this reason there is no such thing as a pure indoor Sativa strain. All Sativa strains that are viable for indoor growing have been hybridised with Indica strains to make them more compact and faster to flower.

Nearly all cannabis grown for industrial purposes is Sativa. As the tallest variety it produces the longest fibres and therefore has the widest range of industrial uses.


Indica varieties are generally agreed to have originated on the Asian subcontinent or possibly Afghanistan. Lamarck, the first European botanist to classify this type, received his samples from India and thus dubbed the plant ‘Indica’ in recognition of that fact.

A typical Indica is a much more compact, thick-stemmed plant, usually attaining a height of less than two metres. It is a darker shade of green, some examples appearing to have almost blue or green-black foliage. Its leaves are comprised of short, wide blades. An Indica tends to produce more side-branches and denser foliage than a Sativa, resulting in a wider, bushier plant. Female Indica flowers form in thick clusters around the internodes of the plant and usually weigh more than Sativa flowers of similar size.

The life cycle of an Indica is divided into two distinct photoperiods – growing and flowering. Growing occurs when the plant is in an environment of long days and short nights. Here, the plant devotes its energy to increasing in size. As days become shorter and nights longer, the plant receives the signal that winter is approaching and flowering is triggered. Here, upward and outward growth slows or stops as the plant devotes its energy to growing reproductive parts.

An Indica requires both a growing and flowering period in order to reach its full size.

Many Indicas are a rich source of the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. While a Sativa may possess a higher proportion of THC relative to its other cannabinoids, an Indica will often contain significant levels of all three. When ingested, Indicas tend to produce more bodily effects than Sativas – effects such as enhancement of physical sensations, relaxation, dry mouth, red eyes. These Indica effects are often grouped together under the term ‘stoned’, as opposed to the ‘high’ imparted by Sativas. This is not to say that Indicas have no psychoactive effect, just that they also have noticeable effects on the body.
Indicas are cultivated almost exclusively for their medicinal and psychoactive properties. Lamarck, when classifying this type, commented that Indica’s “firm stem and thin bark make it incapable of furnishing similar fibres to the preceding species (C. sativa L.) of which so much use is made.”


The name ‘ruderalis’ comes from the German ruderal, a term for weeds growing by the roadside or on other fallow land.

Cannabis ruderalis is an uncultivated strain native to Russia and central Europe and is adapted to the harsher environments found in these locations. Whether seen as a variation on the single cannabis species or as a distinct species in itself, Ruderalis varieties are most likely descended from Indica varieties which, in turn, are probably descended from Sativas.

The differences between these three in their growing and reproductive patterns can be linked to the vastly different climates and environments encountered by the original tropical phenotype C. sativa L. as it colonised further and further north of the equator after the last ice age.

The most notable characteristic of the Ruderalis strain is its capacity to flower (and therefore reproduce) according to an individual plant’s age, independent of the photoperiod in which it is growing.

Since nearly all flowering plants take their cue to reproduce from the climatic factors indicative of season, the ability to begin this process based on changes in the plant rather than in its environment is known as ‘auto-flowering’.

A Ruderalis will begin flowering when it achieves a certain stage of maturity – normally after about seven weeks of growth, when it reaches its fifth to seventh internode. Once a Ruderalis has begun flowering, it continues to do so until other environmental factors (most notably winter) cause the plant to die. The other varieties may expire naturally once their reproduction has been accomplished, or may return to vegetative growth if given a long photoperiod.

Ruderalis’ adaptation to short, cool summers can be seen in other areas. Ruderalis has the ability to complete its life cycle – from being a seed to producing seeds – in just 10 weeks. Its seeds detach easily and can survive more than one season in frozen ground – until conditions are favourable enough to allow growth. The seeds can also survive their shells being cracked open when walked on by humans or animals. For some Ruderalis strains, this occurrence may even aid the germination of seeds.

A typical Ruderalis plant is very short in height, often between 10cm and 50cm at full maturity. It displays little or no branching and has wide, fat-bladed leaves, similar to those of an Indica. Once flowering begins, Ruderalis will gain even less height than an Indica.

Wild Ruderalis strains are nearly always high in CBD and low in THC.

While pure Ruderalis strains have little value in terms of fibre, medicine or psychoactivity, their auto-flowering capability and their extremely fast maturation time are of great interest to cannabis breeders. Hybrids made from combining Indica and Ruderalis strains are currently proving to be some of the earliest-maturing outdoor plants available.

20 Sep

What are the Active Components of Medical Marijuana?

When people think of the medical properties of marijuana, they immediately associate its effects with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most psychologically active compound in cannabis. But what most people don’t know is that there are actually 483 different identifiable chemical constituents found in cannabis.

Many of these constituents are non-psychoactive components, and many of them are found in other plants. Only 66 of these constituents—called cannabinoids—are unique to the Cannabis plant. But that does not mean there are 66 different cannabinoid effects or interactions. Most of the cannabinoids are closely related and oftentimes they work together to create the healing properties of pot. For example, in 2001, GW Pharmaceuticals found that only a combination of CBD and THC offered analgesic effects for MS patients. Taken alone, neither CBD nor THC was as effective in treating chronic pain as they were in combination.

Medical marijuana studies have shown that the non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in medical marijuana have medical properties. For example, cannabidiol (CBD) has sedative, analgesic and antibiotic properties, and appears to heighten the depressant effects and moderate the euphoric effects. And studies suggest that cannabigerol (CBG) may reduce intraocular pressure and contribute to marijuana’s antibiotic properties.

Here is a complete list of the cannabinoids found in marijuana, according to the Institute of Medicine’s March 1999 report titled “Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base:”

Cannabinoids Identified in Marijuana

Cannabinoid Group


Known Variants










































Miscellaneous types




According to an article published by Americans for Safe Access called “Research: Definitions and Explanations,” other non-active components of the cannabis plant include: nitrogenous compounds (27 known), amino acids (18), proteins (3), glycoproteins (6), enzymes (2), sugars and related compounds (34), hydrocarbons (50), simple alcohols (7), aldehydes (13), ketones (13), simple acids (21), fatty acids (22), simple esters (12), lactones (1), steroids (11), terpenes (120), non-cannabinoid phenols (25), flavonoids (21), vitamins (1) [Vitamin A], pigments (2), and elements (9).

20 Sep

Cannabinoids, What are They

Cannabinoids CBD

The Active Elements Of dope

Beneath are some of the naturally developing cannabinoids identified in weed products like marijuana, cannabis, and cannabis oil. Additionally to natural cannabinoids, there are quite a few synthetic cannabinoids which are not covered in this article. Synthetic cannabinoids are not identified in marijuana, cannabis, or hashish oil unless they have been intentionally added.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) gets a consumer higher, a greater THC content will produce a much more potent large. Not having THC you do not get large.

CBD (Cannabidiol) heightens some of the results of THC and lessens other effects of THC. High concentrations of THC and low amounts of CBD contribute to a potent, clear headed, more energetic higher.

pot that has a large level of both THC and CBD will generate a effective head-stone that feels practically dreamlike. pot that has low amounts of THC and high degrees of CBD produces much more of a stoned feeling. The mind feels flat and the body feels fatigued.

CBN (Cannabinol) is generated as THC ages and breaks down, this procedure is recognised as oxidization. Large amounts of CBN seem to make the person feel messed up rather than high.

CBN stages can be kept to a minimal by putting weed goods in a dim, cool, airtight atmosphere. Grass ought to be dried previous to storage, and might have to be dried again after being stored somewhere that is humid.

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) is found principally in strains of African and Asian marijuana. THCV heightens the swiftness and intensity of THC results, but also causes the high to end sooner. Weed that smells highly effective (prior to smoking) may signify a higher level of THCV.

CBC (Cannabichromene) may possibly not be psychoactive in pure form but is thought to work together with THC to enhance the higher.

CBL (Cannabicyclol) is a degradative product like CBN. Light converts CBC to CBL.

If you are a grower, you can experiment with various strains of weed to make the different qualities you seek. A medical user searching for something with sleep inducing elements might want to create a crop that has large amounts of CBD.

One more person searching for a far more energetic large will want to grow a strain that has excessive ranges of THC and low ranges of CBD. In general, weed sativa has decrease stages of CBD and increased stages of THC. weed indica has larger amounts of CBD and decrease quantities of THC than sativa

20 Sep

Businesses and Market Presence in the CBD

A central business district or CBD is the commercial and geographical heart of a major city. In the United States and Canada, the CBD is often colloquially referred to as the downtown area or city center. A CBD is considered the focal point of large cities, usually characterized by a concentration of retail and office buildings. The financial district, major office buildings, and some of the city’s most prestigious amenities such as museums, sports stadiums, concert halls, and stock exchange will be located in the CBD.

Moreover, major companies often have representation in the many office spaces that are available in buildings. CBDs offer much excitement to visitors and inhabitants alike, as many of the best shopping and entertainment districts will be located within the CBD. For major corporations and businesses, having a prestigious office space in the heart of the CBD raises company profile, provides a recognizable address, and facilitates business ventures with clients.

For many fledgling businesses, having established office space in the CBD is often the first step in creating a market presence. However, not all startups have the immediate capital to rent expensive office suites. This is why executive suites are so advantageous to small enterprises and promising startup companies.

An executive suite is a set of individual offices sublet from a larger suite of office space Atlanta. The executive suite proprietor will rent entire floors and even buildings to large companies that wish to conduct their operations in the CBD. Smaller office spaces and workstations will be leased to smaller businesses that do not require extensive office space.

The advantage of executive office space Atlanta lie in its flexible lease terms. Businesses can lease office space for a certain period (several months to a year) and then choose to end or upgrade their contract once their lease has expired. For startup businesses that may experience growth later on, this is a major advantage as it enables them to expand their office space later on by renting out more office space should the need arise.

Some of the best executive nashville office space will offer their tenants unsurpassed additional services. Many of the best executive suites offer their tenants furnished interiors, administrative and secretarial staff, fully-equipped meeting rooms, as well as high-speed Internet access and telecommunications networking.

20 Sep

Sydney Cbd Office Market

The Sydney CBD commercial office market will be the prominent player in 2008. A rise in leasing activity is likely to take place with businesses re-examining the selection of purchasing as the costs of borrowing drain the bottom line. Strong tenant demand underpins a new round of construction with several new speculative buildings now likely to proceed.

The vacancy rate is likely to fall before new stock can comes onto the market. Strong demand and a lack of available options, the Sydney CBD market is likely to be a key beneficiary and the standout player in 2008.

Strong demand stemming from business growth and expansion has fuelled demand, however it has been the decline in stock which has largely driven the tightening in vacancy. Total office inventory declined by almost 22,000m² in January to June of 2007, representing the biggest decline in stock levels for over 5 years.

Ongoing solid white-collar employment growth and healthy company profits have sustained demand for office space in the Sydney CBD over the second half of 2007, resulting in positive net absorption. Driven by this tenant demand and dwindling available space, rental growth has accelerated. The Sydney CBD prime core net face rent increased by 11.6% in the second half of 2007, reaching $715 psm per annum. Incentives offered by landlords continue to decrease.

The total CBD office market absorbed 152,983 sqm of office space during the 12 months to July 2007. Demand for A-grade office space was particularly strong with the A-grade off market absorbing 102,472 sqm. The premium office market demand has decreased significantly with a negative absorption of 575 sqm. In comparison, a year ago the premium office market was absorbing 109,107 sqm.

With negative net absorption and rising vacancy levels, the Sydney market was struggling for five years between the years 2001 and late 2005, when things began to change, however vacancy remained at a fairly high 9.4% till July 2006.

Due to competition from Brisbane, and to a lesser extent Melbourne, it has been a real struggle for the Sydney market in recent years, but its core strength is now showing the real outcome with probably the finest and most soundly based performance indicators since early on in 2001.

The Sydney office market currently recorded the third highest vacancy rate of 5.6 per cent in comparison with all other major capital city office markets. The highest increase in vacancy rates recorded for total office space across Australia was for Adelaide CBD with a slight increase of 1.6 per cent from 6.6 per cent. Adelaide also recorded the highest vacancy rate across all major capital cities of 8.2 per cent.

The city which recorded the lowest vacancy rate was the Perth commercial market with 0.7 per cent vacancy rate. In terms of sub-lease vacancy, Brisbane and Perth were one of the better performing CBDs with a sub-lease vacancy rate at only 0.0 per cent.

The vacancy rate could additionally fall further in 2008 as the limited offices to be delivered over the following two years come from major office refurbishments of which much has already been committed to.

Where the market is going to get really interesting is at the end of this year. If we assume the 80,000 square metres of new and refurbished stick re-entering the market is absorbed this year, coupled with the minute amount of stick additions entering the market in 2009, vacancy rates and incentive levels will really plummet.

The Sydney CBD office market has taken off in the last 12 months with a big drop in vacancy rates to an all time low of 3.7%. This has been accompanied by rental growth of up to 20% and a marked decline in incentives over the corresponding period.

Strong demand stemming from business growth and expansion has fuelled this trend (unemployment has fallen to 4% its lowest level since December 1974). However it has been the decline in stock which has largely driven the tightening in vacancy with limited space entering the market in the next two years.

Any assessment of future market conditions should not ignore some of the potential storm clouds on the horizon. If the US sub-prime crisis causes a liquidity problem in Australia, corporates and consumers alike will find debt more expensive and harder to get.

The Reserve Bank is continuing to raise rates in an attempt to quell inflation which has in turn caused an increase in the Australian dollar and oil and food prices continue to climb. A combination of all of those factors could serve to dampen the market in the future.

However, strong demand for Australian commodities has assisted the Australian market to remain relatively un-troubled to date.

The outlook for the Sydney CBD office market remains positive. With supply expected to be moderate over the next few years, vacancy is set to remain low for the nest two years before increasing slightly.

Looking forward to 2008, net demands is expected to fall to around 25,500 sqm and net additions to supply are expected to reach 1,690 sqm, resulting in vacancy falling to around 4.6% by December 2008.

Prime rental growth is expected to remain strong over 2008. Premium core net face rental growth in 2008 is expected to be 8.8% and Grade A stock is likely to experience growth of around 13.2% over the same period.

With this in mind, if demand continues as per current expectations, the Sydney CBD office market should continue to benefit with rents rising due to the lack of existing stock or new stock being offered until at least 2010.

Tim Green Commercial is Sydney CBD’s leading commercial property real estate agency.

20 Sep

Cannabis Oil is Everything We Want in Our Lives

Cannabis or medical marijuana has been proved beneficial for health in many ways. Some doctors advocate its use for treatment of chronic diseases. It is one super drug that does it all. It is still not legal in many states because it is a common misconception that this would encourage people to smoke pot without any restriction. Well, it may take some time to legalize cannabis but you should know what raw CBD oils can actually do for us. Since it is not burned to consume, it is perfect for people who do not want to get high and want the benefits of cannabis.

1. It reveals the tension and anxiety and helps the heart

In this fast paced life, who is not stressed? Stress seems to be the major problem that is affecting the work efficiency of most of the people. There is no doubt that smoking pot takes you in another world but a less conventional and more appropriate way is cannabis oil massage. The cannabis oil contains the vitamins which are rarely found in any other oil. This oil makes you calm and relaxed. It is also good for your heart as it balance out the negative oils in the system. It gets rid of excess cholesterol and takes care of your cardiovascular system.

2. It is a great pain killer and a healer

If you often suffer from headaches and muscle pains, this oil can do wonders for you. For people who suffer from joint pain can also be benefited from the use of cannabis oil. It is also observed that local application of cannabis oil on skin helps fight skin cancer. In addition to the local application, the oil can also be used in baking to prepare cookies.

3. Cannabis oil is anti-THC

If you smoke weed, then this means you are taking THC in your body. THC is psychoactive and it has several negative effects on the body. CBD oil can fight all the intoxicating effects of THC efficiently. CBD helps you gain a new energy and thus, the sleep-inducing effects of THC are counteracted.

4. This oil is for all the ladies

You know that you want a glowing skin which is soft to touch. Cannabis oil can do that for you. It protects your skin from pollution, the sun, and other skin diseases. It targets the signs of aging and helps you to look younger. It sheds the dead skin and heals the cuts and burn faster. Again, you can use it topically or consume it. For topical application, you can use oil to massage the skin (including face). It can be mixed in your massage cream or face masks too.

5. Cancer can be cured with regular use of it

This may be an unconventional method but raw CBD oils can effectively cure cancer. The regular use of cannabis oil restricts the growth of cancer and thus it cannot spread to other parts of the body.

20 Sep

CBD rich hemp oil is the perfect fit for vaping

Vaping, the replacement of the word “smoking” in the time of the e-cigarette, has taken the world by storm. By many accounts it is indeed a better alternative, which no carcinogenic smoke inhaled by your lungs, no obnoxious odor and no risk of accidentally starting a fire.

Now that you can readily find CBD Vape Oil for sale online, it is extremely easy to use any conventional e-cigarette, also known as a vaporizer or vape pen, to consume your requirement of CBD. The rise in use of CBD rich hemp oil can be partially attributed to its popularity among people who vape. It is convenient, discreet and most of all, does not have you inhaling smoke that is proven to have carcinogens that can harm the lungs.

CBD rich hemp oil has increased in popularity as people get more and more aware about the myriad health benefits of CBD, and the convenience of finding CBD vape oil for sale online readily has only added to it. CBD, or cannabidiol, has traditionally been the second most abundant compound found in marijuana smoke after THC or tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound that affects psychomotor and psychosensory pathways and is responsible for getting people “high”. While marijuana smoke has long been known to have medicinal applications and various useful health benefits, chief amongst them being able to significantly lower the risk of cancer and epilepsy, delaying neurodegenerative disorders, increasing mental alertness, reducing instances of nausea and seizures, and boosting the immune system, doctors have been hesitant to prescribe it due to aforementioned psychoactive effects of THC. However, researchers have been able to grow strains of cannabis that have almost no concentration of THC through selective breeding processes. What this means is that now we have access to cannabis that possesses all the health benefits that have been attributed to marijuana but no possibility of getting high.

This means that people can now assuredly avail of the health benefits of CBD through a number of ways. Consumption and purchase of CBD oil and other derivatives is perfectly legal and does not require a medical marijuana license. Most CBD oil is derived from industrial hemp that has very little concentration of THC in the first place. Also, such hemp has always been sourced from outside the United States, freeing such endeavors from any legal quagmires whatsoever.

What is more important about CBD is that it not only has significant health benefits of its own but can also undo the damage that has been linked to consumption of THC, such as impairment of short term memory. While THC is not toxic in even large quantities and does not have any adverse long-term effects on the human body, many people, including those in the medical community, would prefer a solution that does not get people high. CBD therefore offers a much more convenient and much widely acceptable alternative to traditional marijuana. The ability to consume it through vape pens just makes it more socially acceptable. So try it now.

20 Sep

About Cannabidiol Vape Oil – Benefits

Vape cbd oil is the extracted form of cbd in form of liquid, which is warmed up and inhaled via Vaporizer, Vape Pen, or E-Cigarette. You can purchase the vape cbd oil in a bottle and stock up your vaporizer or you can take it for one-time use. Vape cbd oil is prepared from the seeds and stalks of marijuana or all-organic hemp plants plus it have active components of cbd, with no psychotropic results of THC. A variety of flavoring component can also be blended to increase its taste and to consequently improve customer’s vaping experience.

What are the perks of cbd vape oil?

Inhaling cbd vape oils is the ideal way to relieve the negative effects of ailments such as high blood-pressure, sleep apnea, inflammation, seizures, joint pain, anxiety, and stress, cancers of all types, Leukemia and many more. There are lots of perks to vape CBD oil.  Here are some –

Diabetes: The leading result of cannabidiol on the endocrine-system is that the same lessens the cortisol plus recovers the level of blood sugar. CBD directly influences the emission of insulin and therefore controls the level of blood sugar. Our pancreas emits the insulin and hormones glucagon. Since glucagon guides the liver to burn the obese into sugar, insulin makes it store the sugar as fat. Since glucagon guides the liver to collapse the fat into sugar, insulin formulates it stock up the sugar as obese. This intricate system is especially subtle and gets simply distressed because of the existing eating habits and lifestyle.

Anxiety and Stress: according to various studies, it has been proved that the dose of cbd can help to reduce anxiety. This is contrary to the augmented levels of stress generated by THC. Furthermore, when you mix THC with CBD, it takes the disquiet rim off THC. This is because of the act of CBD on TRPV1 and 5HT1A receptors, since both of these elements are concerned in justifying the fear, panic, and anxiolytic responses to anxiety. Because of these characteristics, CBD is utilized on a huge level by doctors to cure stress and anxiety. It begins working immediately and the consumer feels much relaxed in 3 hours of consuming CBD.

Metabolism Body plump Burn: Cbd is famous to offset some of the results of THC same as the munchies. Since THC boosts your hunger extensively, CBD hold back your hunger. Thus, if you are concerned about your fitness and think in maintaining the ideal body, CBD can help you in this regard.

Most excellent CBD Vape Oil

There are a number of cbd vape oils organizations that claims to offer the best vape cbd oil to the customer or claim to offer the safest and purest vape CBD oil. But without testing out the available cbd products, there is no other method to find out the best product. Therefore, it would be better, if you read the customer’s reviews and try out some of the brands to determine which one is best.